This is the third and final post in a series detailing how I currently maintain my academic website (here). In the first post, I explained how I write and edit my site using the simple and intuitive syntax of markdown, rather than pure HTML, and convert from markdown to HTML using pandoc. In the second post, I explained how I automate the process of pushing my website to the hosting server using a combination of ssh and rsync. In this post, I’ll explain how to version control everything using git and GitHub.1

Version Control

Version control is usually thought of as something that software developers do: each time they make a software change, they implement and record the change in a way that lets them track the history of the software and, if necessary, revert back to a previous version, i.e. undo changes.

But software is not the only thing that can be version controlled. Any sort of text can be, including HTML source code (hence, websites), LaTeX source codes (hence, research papers), markdown code, etc. Here are just a few benefits to version controlling and keeping your revisions as a repository on a site like GitHub:

  • Automatic backups. If you add/remove/change something and later decide that was a bad idea, you can easily revert back. Or if your computer dies and you lose your website entirely, just grab the whole thing, including all the revision history, from GitHub.

  • Separate branches. Test out new changes in a separate “branch”, without dirtying up the master branch, and then, once satisfied, merge the changes into the master branch.

  • Revision history. Visualize all changes over time using change logs. For example, see when you’re most active about updating your site, how often you update, etc.

  • Open source. Assuming your GitHub repository is public (not private), the source code to your website will be open for people to view, reuse, modify, etc.

Moreover, version controlling a simple, one-page website is really easy and will give you experience dealing with git so that you can move on to version controlling more important/complex things, like a PhD thesis, books, research papers, etc. written in LaTeX.


First things first, you’ll actually need the git program. On Linux, just grab git using your package manager. Next, you need to tell git your name and email address, which it attaches to the messages you write that explain changes you make.


Open a terminal and type the following. (Remember that $ is the (end of the) terminal prompt; don’t type it.)

$ git config --global "Your Name"


Now add your email address.

$ git config --global ""

What the two commands above do is essentially tell git to associate the two values “Your Name” and “” with the two global variables and, respectively. You can check that it worked by typing

$ git config --global --list

which tells git to list all global config options. You can also check them by opening the file .gitconfig in a text editor, but don’t edit this file directly. Use git config instead.


Now go over to GitHub, create an account, and sign in. (You should at some point read through all the “bootcamp” help pages.)

The ultimate goal here is to have a local “repo(sitory)” on your home computer, e.g. the main directory containing your website files, and a remote repo on GitHub, and, each time you change your website, to push all those changes from the local repo to the remote one, that way GitHub has an exact copy of all versions of your website at all times.

But before you can push anything to GitHub, you need GitHub to give you access remote access to your account. Luckily, GitHub does this using ssh, which we already learned about in the previous post. So the setup here is essentially the same: create a new ssh key pair (public and private keys), give GitHub your public key so it can recognize you, and add GitHub to your ssh config file to make your life easy.

So then, first run

$ mkdir -p ~/.ssh # create this if it doesn't already exist
$ cd ~/.ssh       # cd into it
$ ssh-keygen -f github -t rsa -C 'GitHub'

to generate the pair of RSA keys, giving them the filenames github and, respectively. Now go to your GitHub account settings, click “SSH Keys”, and click “Add SSH key”. Give the key a title, and then paste the contents of (NOT github: this is the private key, which you should never disclose) into the text field. One way get the contents of that file is

$ xsel -b < ~/.ssh/github

if you have xsel installed, which copies the contents of github onto your clipboard so that you can paste the contents into your browser, e.g. with ctrl-V. Or open in your text editor and highlight and copy everything. In any case, once you’ve managed that, click “Add key”.

You can check that GitHub recognizes you by ssh-ing into GitHub:

$ ssh -i ~/.ssh/github

You should get a message like, “Hello yourusername! You’ve successfully authenticated, but GitHub does not provide shell access.”

Note that in the above command the username is git rather than your own, and the hostname is If you have an ssh config file (~/.ssh/config), you can add GitHub so that you don’t have to specify this info, or the key, each time.

Host github
    User git
    IdentityFile ~/.ssh/github

Now you can run the following command, which is identical to the above one.

$ ssh github

Moreover, having a config file will make using git much easier, too.

Creating a Repo

It’s time to create a repo(sitory). There will be two instances: one local one, which is the directory containing the contents of your website, and one remote one, hosted by GitHub. Basically, you’ll maintain your website locally, track changes using git, then push those changes to GitHub, so that GitHub will have an exact copy of each version of your website (hence the automatic backups benefit).

Remote Repo

In GitHub, click the “Create a new repo” icon at the top-right corner next to your username. Call the new repo my-website, give it a description like “Source code to my website” (this is optional and only appears on GitHub), make sure that “Public” is checked, and then click “Create repository”.

At this point, you have an empty repo on GitHub. Once we create the local instance, we can push changes to the remote GitHub one.

Local Repo

Go into your website directory and initialize it with git, which means turn that directory into a git repo, so that git can start tracking everything. Following last post’s example, our friend Bob would do the following.

$ cd ~/website
~/website $ git init
Initialized empty Git repository in /home/bob/website

Now we need to link up this local repo with the remote GitHub one so that we can start pushing stuff to GitHub. Assuming that Bob’s GitHub username is bobbarker and that he has an entry in his ssh config called Host github, then Bob would run the following command.

~/website $ git remote add origin github:bobbarker/my-website.git

This command adds a remote called origin (the convention is to always call it origin), located at bobbarker/my-website.git.

Git Basics

As you read this section, it might be helpful to periodically run git status to see how things change as we run git commands. It’s good habit anyway to run git status while you work, especially because git usually tells you exactly what you need to do and what commands to run.

Tracking/Adding Files

At the moment, Bob’s remote repo is empty, and although the local repo has stuff like index.html and other files and directories, none of them are being tracked by git.

~/website $ git status
# On branch master
# Initial commit
# Untracked files:
#   (use "git add <file>..." to include in what will be committed)
#   index.html
#   ...
nothing added to commit but untracked files present (use "git add" to track)

What this means is that git is not tracking these files to look for changes. If changes are made, git won’t know, because it has no baseline. The syntax for adding files to be tracked is the following.

$ git add [FILENAME] # add a file, or list of files, to be tracked
$ git add .          # add entire directory

For simplicity, let’s assume Bob has added his entire website directory.

~/website $ git add .
~/website $ git status
# On branch master
# Initial commit
# Changes to be committed:
#   (use "git rm --cached <file>..." to unstage)
#   new file:   index.html
#   ...

Now that git is tracking the files, it tells Bob that there is a “change” to be committed, namely that there is a new file.

Committing Changes

Before doing anything else, Bob should do a commit, essentially creates the first snapshot of his website, as far as git is concerned. Every commit must have a commit message, describing what changes have been made.

~/website $ git commit -m "first commit"
[summary of what was committed]
~/website $ git status
# On branch master
nothing to commit, working directory clean

Pushing to Remote

This commit is now ready to be pushed to GitHub.

$ git push -u origin master

This command pushes (all the committed changes from) the master branch (more about branches later) over to the origin remote that was created earlier, i.e. the GitHub remote.

If all was successful, you (or Bob) should be able to see an exact copy of your website directory in your GitHub my-website repo.

Basic Workflow

So here’s a typical example of how you might use git after, or while, updating your website. Let’s say you want to add new research paper, paper.pdf, to your site.

  1. Add paper.pdf to a directory like ~/website/files/.
  2. Update index.markdown to include a reference to paper.pdf.
  3. Run md2html to convert index.markdown to index.html.
  4. Push changes to the university server.

If you run git status, you’ll see that git has noticed that some tracked files have been modified. So you

  1. Add all of modifications with git add . .
  2. Commit the added modifications with git commit -m "added new paper".
  3. Push to GitHub with git push origin master.

Adding vs. Committing

It took me a while to understand the differences between adding and committing, and I suggest you read a bit online somewhere about it. But basically, once you’ve modified some file, you add the changes to a so-called staging area, and when you’re ready, you commit those changes. (Or you can unstage the changes with git reset, do more work, and readd them, or you discard all changes and go back to a clean slate with git checkout.) The purpose of add, I believe, is to let you gather up a range of changes, possibly over several files, and commit them with a single commit. This would make sense if you’re committing a big “change” that spans several files, or several different parts of a file.

Thus, with add and commit, you’re not really adding or committing files, but rather changes, which in turn means that you can add and commit different changes to a single file or multiple files at different times and with different commit messages. It’s very versatile.

Git Branches

One of best git features is branching. Currently, Bob has only a master branch. Suppose, however, that he wants to completely overhaul the layout of his website. (I’ll talk only about index.html here.) It might take him a month or two of off-and-on working to get his site looking the way he wants it, and he doesn’t want the new and improved version to go live until it’s completely done. Moreover, he still wants to be able to add new papers, etc. to his live website. Essentially, then, Bob needs to be able to work on two versions of his website: the master version, which has the old layout but is still updated with new content, and the in-progress version, which has the new layout.

Enter branches. Bob creates a new branch of his website repo called new_layout.

~/website $ git branch new_layout
~/website $ git branch
* master

The branch command with no arguments lists all branches, and the star indicates which branch you’re currently working on. Bob switches over to the new_layout branch and does some hacking.

~/website $ git checkout new_layout
Switched to branch 'new_layout'

Bob does a bunch of edits and commits. He can view the results in his browser, etc. Finally, he pushes the commits to GitHub, which creates a new_layout branch there, too. And finally, he switches back to the master branch.

~/website $ git checkout master
Switched to branch 'master'

Bob now sees the old, untouched version of index.html. He can also add new papers, commit and push them, etc. without affecting the other branch, and he can switch to new_layout whenever he wants to work on the new layout.

A month passes and finally Bob is ready to use his new layout, so he must merge his new_layout branch into his master branch.

~/website $ git merge new_layout

This command updates the master branch to include changes from new_layout. (Merging may require some human intervention if git can’t figure everything out.) Once Bob is satisfied that everything is merged properly, he can delete the new_layout branch.

~/website $ git branch -d new_layout

Note that all commits and commit messages made in new_layout become commits in master.

Git Resources

In addition to the basic “bootcamp” help offered by GitHub, I found the following website particularly helpful.

Moreover, the primary documentation is probably the most exhaustive and authoritative.

Lastly, the git program itself has a very exhaustive help command. Just about everything has a help page.

  • git help push
  • git help config
  • git help commit
  • git help add
  • and so forth.
  1. Other version control programs include Mercurial and Subversion. Another repository-hosting website is Bitbucket, which in addition to Git also supports Mercurial and even offers free private repos.