Update: Since I wrote this post, I discovered that markdown conversion programs like Pandoc and kramdown can convert extensions of markdown that include footnotes. For example, it suffices to do:

Blah blah blah.[^fn] Lorem ipsum...

[^fn]: Here's a footnote!

But I will leave this post here since it may be a useful reference for people writing in pure html rather than markdown.

I’ve been toying with how best to incorporate inline references and end–of–post footnotes into my blog posts, and here’s what I’ve come up with. I’ll start with my first, very simplistic attempt, then explain my slightly more complicated but also more flexible (I think) solution.

This blog is (Update: was) powered by Octopress, which allows me to write blog posts in markdown syntax, which is then parsed and converted into HTML by kramdown.[1] Markdown has a nice, easy, and highly legible way of creating simple links. Just type one of these.

Click [here](url) to see something awesome!

Click [here][blah] to see something awesome!
[blah]: url

Both are expanded into the following.

Click <a href="url">here</a> to see something awesome!

Now, whether you write in markdown or in HTML, footnotes would seem really easy to do, and in some sense, they are. Simply create a footnote at the bottom of the page that has some sort of element with an id, preferably mnemonic, e.g., <a id="fn">..., and then refer to that id in your text in the normal way, by adding a #: either as <a href="#fn">1</a> in HTML, or as [1](#fn) in markdown.

Blah blah blah blah.[1](#fn) More blah...

---
1.  <a id="fn"></a> Even more blah...

But there are some problems with this method. First, it’s ugly.2 See how ugly that big underlined number looks? Second, and more importantly, as I’ve written it, there’s no link from the footnote back up to the reference, so once you’re done reading the footnote, you have to go find where you were before. Uncool. There’s nothing worse than a footnote with no link back to the reference.

One potential solution to both problems is the following: wrap some <sup></sup> around the reference text to superscript it, and also use this element to declare an id for the reference. Then you can link from the footnote to the reference using the reference id, together with a useful symbol like ↑ as the link text (&uarr; in HTML; stands for up arrow, of course).

Blah blah blah blah.<sup id="ref">[1](#fn)</sup> More blah...

---
1.  <a id="fn" href="#ref">&uarr;</a> Even more blah...

This actually ain’t that bad.3 However, what if we want to customize how the reference number looks? What if we don’t like underline, or we want a special color or font or size? Unfortunately, any style properties of a sup element get overridden if they are also style properties of the a element embedded inside the <sup></sup> tags: recall that

<sup ...>[text](url)</sup>

gets expanded to

<sup ...><a href="url">text</a></sup>

In Octopress, that means that sup {text-decoration: none;}, sup {font-size: small;}, etc. have no effect on superscript reference links because a already has its own text-decoration and font-size values.

The solution I’ve come up with to all these problems is to define two new classes of anchors (a elements): one for references and one for footnotes. I like my reference numbers to be small and superscript, with no underline, and I like my up arrow to be normal size and superscript, with no underline.

a.ref {
  vertical-align: super;
  font-size: small;
  text-decoration: none;
  @include link-colors($link-color,
                       $hover: $link-color-hover,
                       $focus: $link-color-hover,
                       $visited: $link-color-visited,
                       $active: $link-color-active);
}

a.fn {
  vertical-align: super;
  text-decoration: none;
  @include link-colors($link-color,
                       $hover: $link-color-hover,
                       $focus: $link-color-hover,
                       $visited: $link-color-visited,
                       $active: $link-color-active);
}

The @include ... stuff adds all the color variables from /sass/custom/_colors.scss. Without that, the links would be black.

These two classes now mean I do references and footnotes as follows.

Blah blah.<a class="ref" id="ref:blah" href="#fn:blah">[1]</a> More blah

Aoeu aoeu aoeu.<a class="ref" id="ref:aoeu" href="#fn:aoeu">[2]</a> More aoeu

---
1.  <a class="fn" id="fn:blah" href="#ref:blah">&uarr;</a> Even more blah...

2.  <a class="fn" id="fn:aoeu" href="#ref:aoeu">&uarr;</a> Even more aoeu...

In other words, each reference consists of a number, like 1, surrounded by a tags of the ref class, with some mnemonic ref id, pointing to the corresponding fn anchor/id. The corresponding footnote consists of a ↑, surrounded by a tags of the fn class, with some mnemonic fn id, pointing back to the corresponding ref anchor/id.

I think this works pretty well. Although it clutters my markdown with a bit of HTML, I think the flexibility is worth it. This way, I can easily change how my reference numbers look, or how my footnote arrow looks, or both, and it’ll trickle down to all my posts that use these classes.

There may be a better way of handling footnotes, but I haven’t seen it or thought of it yet.


  1. Octopress actually uses rdiscount by default. Read here to find out why I switched to kramdown.

  2. The actual footnote doesn’t look too bad, but keep reading.

  3. At least it works. Note that in Octopress superscripts are not very superscript by default. You must add sup {vertical-align: super;} to your /sass/custom/_styles.scss.